The bibliography listed here is an ongoing compilation that focuses mainly on academic writing on art, surveillance technologies, government security regulations, and intergovernmental organizations in the Canadian context.  If you know of any sources that should be included here, please don’t hesitate to visit the Contact page and send a message.


Canadian Artworks and Exhibitions
** not all these projects appear on the Art & Surveillance Project website at this point

“Surveillance.” 2016. Group Exhibition. Mixed Media. The New Gallery, Calgary, AB.

Atkins, Kristen. 2011. Portrayal Portal. Computer, hardware, camera.

Badani, Pat. 2015. make-A-move. Interactive video installation.

Bambitchell. 2011-2015. Border Sounds. Sound and video installation.

Blumensohn, Carmel. 2015. “Art Souterrain: The Security in our Society: What Remains of our Personal Freedoms.” Public exhibition, Montreal.

Bonde, Niels. 2015. All My Friends Are Actors Following a Script. Computer, software, cameras, installation.

Cardiff, Janet. 2004-ongoing. Eyes of Janet. Interactive video. Vancouver Art Gallery. Vancouver.

Chung-yan, Alison. 2006. Surveillance. Video. Leonardo Electronic Almanac Global Crossings Online Exhibition.

Clouard, Eva. 2015. Mont-réel. GPS app, television monitor, Google maps.

“Cyber-Surveillance in Everyday Life: An Art Exhibit.” 2011. Group exhibition. Mixed Media. InterAccess Electronic Media Arts Centre. Toronto.

Curry, Derek and Jennifer Gradecki. 2015. Crowd-Sourced Intelligence Agency: Agent Bayes. Interactive website.

Diamant, Tomer and Mathew Hannam, Comment/Like–Code of Quick Response. 3D-printed sculpture, software.

Dunlop, Derek. 2008. A Lover’s Geography. Low resolution photographs.

Giasson, Steve. 2010. VOX. Ink on paper

Goldstein, Brenda. 2003. Panopticon. DVD. Toronto: Vtape.

Janzen, Edwin. 2015. New Masters. Vinyl cut-outs.

Kemp, Dave. 2009. Data Collection. Archival pigments prints mounted on sintra.

Lambert, Mathieu. 2015. Unlisted Station. Speakers, wiring.

Lee, Ruthann. 2004. Trying to Keep Concentrate. Video.

Marman, Jennifer and David Borins. 2010-ongoing. Total Disinformation Awareness series. Mixed media. Various locations.

Marman, Jennifer and David Borins. 2011. Unknown Unknowns. Video. Ed Video and Elora Centre for the Arts. Guelph.

McQuillen, Kate. 2013. Boxcutter III, X-rays Series. Pressure Monoprint on Rives BFK.

Mitra, Srimoyee, curator. 2015. “Border Cultures: Part Three (security, surveillance).” Group Exhibition. Mixed Media. Art Gallery of Windsor, Windsor, ON.

Montereali, Leda. 2011. Privacy. Google Street View, photographs, video.

Rafman, Jon. 2010-ongoing. The Nine Eyes of Google Street View. Video. Various locations.

Ritter, Kathleen. 2005. Interloper. 4-channel video installation with sound, 100 performance scripts, photographs, map, map pins, cork board.

Robertson, Genevieve and Jay White. 2015. The Watchers. Inkjet print on paper.

Robinson, Michael A. 2013. Subject to Scrutiny. Camcorders, cameras, tripods

Selvaggio, Leonardo. 2014-ongoing. URME Surveillance. 3-D print on pigmented hard resin.

Sourkes, Cheryl. 2001. Cam Cities, Virtual Toronto, 2001, Inkjet on unstretched exterior vinyl banner, steel bar.

Spence, Robert. 2008-ongoing. The Eyeborg Project. Film. Various locations.

Spriggs, David. 2014. Transparency Report Series. Engravings on 9 sheets of tempered glass layered and spaced in transparent plexi-glass display units.

SubZeroArts. 2015. Touch Cubes. Interactive software, plastic, speakers.

Szoke, Donna and Ricarda McDonald. 2012-ongoing. and all watched over by machines of loving grace. Interactive video installation involving computer, software, large monitors and a sensor. Various locations.

Toledo, Tamara. 2015. “Sportsmanship Under Surveillance.” SUR Gallery, Toronto, ON.


Source Bibliography:

®™ark, Sylvie Myerson, and Vidyut Jain. 2004. “The Art of Confusion.” In Anarchitexts: Essays in Global Digital Resistance, edited by Joanne Richardson, 129-32. New York: Autonomedia.

“America’s Secret Agencies: Inside the Covert World of the CIA, NSA, FBI, and Special Ops.” 2014. Special Issue of Time Magazine. January.

“Sourriex Vous Êtes Surveillés.” 2014. Special Issue of Manière de voir, Le Monde diplomatique 133. February-March.

Snowden Digital Surveillance Archive. 2015. Project Partners: Canadian Journalists for Free Expression (CJFE) and the Politics of Surveillance Project at the Faculty of Information at the University of Toronto.

Aas, Katja F., Helene O. Gundhas, and Heidi M. Lomell, eds. 2009. Technologies of inSecurity: The Surveillance of Everyday Life. Abingdon and New York: Routledge-Cavendish.

Abrash, Barbara. 2005. “Digital Democracy, Digital History: ‘9/11 and After.’” Radical History Review 93 (Fall): 96-100.

Agamben, Giorgio. 1998. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen. Stanford; Stanford University Press.

Agamben, Giorgio. 2002. “Security and Terror.” Translated by Caroline Emcke. Theory and Event 5. 4: n.p.

Agamben, Giorgio. 2005. State of Exception. Trans. Kevin Attell. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Agathangelou, Anna M. and L.H.M. Ling. 2009. Empire and Insecurity in World Politics: Seductions of Neoliberalism. New York and London: Routledge.

Albrechtslund, Anders and Lynsey Dubbeld. 2005. “The Plays and Arts of Surveillance: Studying Surveillance as Entertainment.” Surveillance and Society 2. 2/3: 216-21.

Allen, Jan. 2010. “Data Dances: The Aesthetics of Surveillance.” Public: Art, Culture, Ideas 40: 40-7.

Allen, Jan, Kirsty Roberston, and Sarah EK Smith. 2010. Sorting Daemons: Art, Surveillance Regimes and Social Control. Exhibition catalogue. Kingston, ON: Agnes Etherington Art Centre.

Amoore, Louise. 2007. “Vigilant Visualities: The Watchful Politics of the War on Terror.” Security Dialogue 38. 2 (June): 215-32.

Andrejevic, Mark. 2007. iSpy: Surveillance and Power in the Interactive Era. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

Antwi, Phanuel and Amber Dean. 2010. “Unfixing Imaginings of the City: Art, Gentrification, and Cultures of Surveillance.” Affinities: Theory, Culture, Action 4. 2.

Asselin, Olivier, Johanne Lamoureux, and Christine Ross, eds. Precarious Visualities: New Perspectives on Identification in Contemporary Art and Visual Culture. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Bakir, Vian. 2010. Sousveillance, Media and Strategic Political Communication: Iraq, USA, UK. New York and London: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Bal, Mieke. 2005. “The Commitment to Look.” Journal of Visual Culture 4. 2 (August): 145-62.

Ball, Kirstie. 2006. “Organization, Surveillance and the Body: Towards a Politics of Resistance.” In Theorizing Surveillance: The Panopticon and Beyond, edited by David Lyon, 296-317. Devon and New York: Willan Publishing.

Ball, Kirstie, Kevin D. Haggerty, and David Lyon. 2012. Routledge Handbook of Surveillance Studies. New York and London: Routledge.

Barlow, Maude. 2005. Too Close for Comfort: Canada’s Future with Fortress North America. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.

Barnard-Wills, Katherine and David Barnard-Wills. 2012. “Invisible Surveillance in Visual Art.” Surveillance & Society 10. 3/4: 204-14.

Bauman Zygmunt and David Lyon. 2013. Liquid Surveillance. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Becker, Karin. 2004. “Where is Visual Culture in Contemporary Theories of Media and Communication?” Nordicom Review 25. 1/2: 149-58.

Bell, Colleen. 2006. “Surveillance Strategies and Populations at Risks: Biopolitical Governance in Canada’s National Security Policy.” Security Dialogue. Centre for International and Security Studies. York University, Toronto, ON: 147-165.

Bell, Colleen. 2011. The Freedom of Security: Governing Canada in the Age of Counter-Terrorism. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Bennett, Colin J. 2005. Location-based Services and the Surveillance of Mobility: An Analysis of Privacy Risks in Canada. Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada.

Bennett, Colin J. 2010. The Privacy Advocates: Resisting the Spread of Surveillance. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Bennett, Colin J. and David Lyon, eds. 2008. Playing the Identity Card: Surveillance, Security and Identification in Global Perspective. New York and London: Routledge.

Bennett, Colin J., Kevin D. Haggerty, David Lyon, and Valerie Steeves, eds. 2014. Transparent Lives: Surveillance in Canada. Edmonton: Athabasca University Press.

Berthiaume, Lee. 2016. “Trudeau heads to NATO summit with commitments, but will face questions.” iPolitics. July 7. Accessed July 23, 2016.

Bilal, Wafaa and Karl Lyderson. 2008. Shoot an Iraqi: Art, Life, and Resistance Under the Gun. San Francisco: City Lights Publishers.

Bill C-30: An Act to enact the Investigating and Preventing Criminal Electronic Communications Act and to amend the Criminal Code and other Acts. House of Commons Canada. First Session, Forty-first Parliament, 60-61 Elizabeth II, 2011-2012. Assented to May 29, 2015. Accessed January 13, 2016.

Bill C-44: An Act to amend the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act and other Acts. House of Commons Canada. Second Session, Forty-first Parliament, 62-63 Elizabeth II, 2013-2014. First reading October 27, 2014. Accessed January 13, 2016.

Bill C-51: An Act to enact the Security of Canada Information Sharing Act and the Secure Air Travel Act, to amend the Criminal Code, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act and the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act and to make related and consequential amendments to other Acts. House of Commons Canada. Second session, Forty-first Parliament, 62-63-64 Elizabeth II, 2015. Assented to June 18, 2015. Accessed January 13, 2016.

Bill S-4: An Act to amend the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and to make a consequential amendment to another Act. House of Commons Canada. Second Session, Forty-first Parliament, 62-63-64 Elizabeth II, 2013-2014-2015. Assented to June 18, 2015. Accessed January 13, 2016.

Blocker, Jane. 2009. Seeing Witness: Visuality and the Ethics of Testimony. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Bogard, William. 2007. “Surveillance, its Simulation, and Hypercontrol in Virtual Systems.” In The Surveillance Studies Reader, edited by Sean Hier and Joshua Greenberg, 95-103. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Bottos, Shauna. 2008. An Overview of Electronic Monitoring in Corrections: The Issues and Implications. Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1968. “Outline of a Sociological Theory of Art Perception.” International Social Science Journal 20. 4 (Winter): 589-612.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1984 [1979]. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1993. The Field of Cultural Production. New York: Columbia University Press.

Boyle, Philip J. and Kevin D. Haggerty. 2009. Privacy Games: The Vancouver Olympics, Privacy and Surveillance. Office of Privacy Commissioner of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Brighenti, Andrea Mubi. “Artveillance: At the Crossroads of Art and Surveillance.” Surveillance & Society 7, 2: 175-86.

Browne, Simone. 2005. “Getting Carded: Border Control and the Politics of Canada’s Permanent Resident Card.” Citizenship Studies 9, 4: 423-38.

Browne, Simone. 2015. Dark Matters: On the Surveillance of Blackness. Durham: Duke University Press.

Brown, Wendy. Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism’s Stealth Revolution. New York: Zone Books.

Buck-Morss, Susan. 2003. Thinking Past Terror: Islamism and Critical Theory on the Left. London and New York: Verso.

Buck-Morss, Susan. 2007. “Visual Empire.” Diacritics 37. 2/3 (Summer-Fall): 171-98.

Butler, Judith. 2004. Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence. London: Verso.

Carzdyn, Eric and Imre Szeman. 2013. After Globalization. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.

Cavoukian, Ann. 2012. Abandon Zero-Sum, Simplistic either/or Solutions- Positive-Sum is Paramount: Achieving Public Safety and Privacy. Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario, Toronto, ON.

Cavoukian, Ann. 2012. Privacy and Drones: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario, Canada.

Chamayou, Grégoire. 2015. A Theory of the Drone. Trans. Janet Lloyd. New York: The New Press.

Chan, Kelvin. 2010. “Robots in the Skies.” The Globe and Mail, July 13. Accessed July 16, 2010.

Chesterman, Simon. 2011. One Nation Under Surveillance: A New Social Contract to Defend Freedom without Sacrifacing Liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cohen, Elliot D. 2010. Mass Surveillance and State Control: The Total Information Awareness Project. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Cohen, Stanley. 1985. Visions of Social Control: crime, punishment, and classification. New York: Polity.

Cohen, Stanley. 2012. Visions of Social Control. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Coleman, Roy. 2004. “Reclaiming the Streets: Closed Circuit Television, Neoliberalism and the Mystification of Social Divisions in Liverpool, UK.” Surveillance and Society 2. 2/3: 293-309.

Cooley, Dennis. 2005. Re-imagining Policing in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Connolly, William E. 2013. The Fragility of Things: Self-Organizing Process, Neoliberal Fantasies and Democratic Activism. Durham: Duke University Press.

Conner, Michael. 2008. “The New Normal.” In The New Normal. Exhibition Catalogue, Independent Curators International, 12-49. New York: Artists Space.

Crandall, Jordan. 2005. “Between Movement and Position: Tracking and its Landscapes of Readiness.” Ephemera 5. x (Dec): 750-63.

Crandall, Jordan. 2005. “Operational Media.” CTheory (January): n.p.

Crandall, Jordan and John Armitage. 2005. “Envisioning the Homefront: Militarization, Tracking and Security Culture.” Journal of Visual Culture 4. 1 (April): 17-38.

Critical Art Ensemble. 1997. “Electronic Civil Disobedience.” In Electronic Civil Disobedience: And Other Unpopular Ideas. New York: Autonomedia.

Cronin, Keri and Kirsty Robertson (eds). 2010. Imagining Resistance: Visual Culture and Activism in Canada. Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier University Press.

Cudmore, James. 2011. “Canada to pull out of key NATO air defense program.” CBC News, June 9. Accessed Dec 15, 2012.

Dandeker, Christopher. 2006. “Surveillance and Military Transformation.” In The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility, edited by Kevin D. Haggerty and Richard V. Ericson, 225-49. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Dawson, Danielle. 2009. A Report on Camera Surveillance in Canada: Part Two: Surveillance Camera Awareness Network (SCAN). Surveillance Studies Centre, Queen’s University.

Deibert, Ron. 2013. Canada and the Challenges of Cyberspace Governance and Security. In SPP Communiqué, School of Public Policy, University of Calgary.

De Landa, Manuel. 1991. War in the Age of Intelligent Machines. New York: Zone Books.

Denning, Michael. 2004. Culture in the Age of Three Worlds. New York and London: Verso.

Derr, Robert Ladislas. 2014. “Artist, Robert Ladislas Derr uses die rolls and cameras to map his walk through cities worldwide.” Surveillance & Society 7, 2: 94-7.

Dikovitskaya, Margaret. 2005. Visual Culture: The Study of the Visual after the Cultural Turn. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Dixon, Steve. 2007. Digital performance: A history of new media in theater, dance, performance art, and installation. Cambridge, MA: The MIT press.

Downtown, Dawn Rae. 2006. “Who’s Watching the Watchers?” The Globe and Mail, July 6. Accessed June 1, 2010. article836654/singlepage/.

Doyle, Aaron, Randy Lippert and David Lyon. 2011. Eyes Everywhere: The Global Growth of Camera Surveillance. New York and London: Routledge.

Dubrofsky, Rachel and Shoshana Amielle Magnet, eds. 2015. Feminist Surveillance Studies. Durham: Duke University Press.

Dvorkin, David. 2013. Dust Net: The Future of Surveillance, Privacy, and Communication: Why Drones Are Just the Beginning. Createspace.

Dyson, Frances. 2005. “Wireless Affections: Embodiment and Emotions in New Media/Theory and Art.” Convergence 11. 4 (Nov): 85-105.

Elmer, Greg. 2004. Profiling Machines: Mapping the Personal Information Economy. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Engle, Karen. 2009. Seeing Ghosts: 9/11 an the Visual Imagination. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Ferguson, Deanna, Bruce Grenville, and Ronald Cardiff Wakkary. Janet Cardiff: The Eyes of Laura. Vancouver: Vancouver Art Gallery, 2005.

Ferguson, James and Akhil Gupta. 2002. “Spatializing States: Toward an Ethnography of Neoliberal Governmentality.” American Ethnologist 29. 4 (Nov): 981-1002.

Fife, Robert and Colin Freeze. 2016. “Canada’s’ Spy Agencies Broke Surveillance Laws, Watchdog Says.” The Globe & Mail. Updated Jan 28. Accessed Sept 10, 2016.

Finn, Jonathan. 2005. “Photographing Fingerprints: Data Collection and State Surveillance.” Surveillance & Society 3. 1: 21-44.

Finn, Jonathan. 2009. Capturing the Criminal Image: From Mug Shot to Surveillance Society. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Finn, Jonathan. 2012. Surveillance Studies and Visual Art: An Examination of Jill Magid’s Evidence Locker. Surveillance & Society 10. 2: 134-49.

Finn, Jonathan, ed. 2012. Visual Communication and Culture Images in Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fiske, John. 1998. “Videotech.” In The Visual Culture Reader, edited by Nicholas Mirzoeff, 383-91. London and New York: Routledge.

Fish, Stanley. 1994 [1989]. “Being Interdisciplinary Is So Very Hard to Do.” There’s No Such Thing as Free Speech: And It’s a Good Thing, Too, 131-42. New York : Oxford University Press.

Forcese, Craig and Kent Roach. 2015. “Bill C-51: The Good, The Bad…and the Truly Ugly. The Walrus. Feb 13. Accessed July 9, 2016.

Forcese, Craig and Kent Roach. 2015. False Security: The Radicalization of Canadian Anti-Terrorism. Toronto: Irwin Law Inc.

Foster, Hal, ed. 1988. Vision and Visuality. Seattle: Bay Press.

Foucault, Michel. 1977. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated by Alan Sheridan. New York: Pantheon Books.

Foucault, Michel. 2003. Society Must Be Defeated: Lectures at the Collége de France 1975-76. Trans. David Macey. New York: Picador.

Foucault, Michel. 2007. Security, Territory, Population. Trans. Graham Burchell. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

Friedberg, Anne. 1998. “The Mobilized and Virtual Gaze in Modernity: Flâneur/Flâneuse.” In The Visual Culture Reader, edited by Nicholas Mirzoeff, 3-23. London and New York: Routledge.

Gandy, Oscar H. 2007. “Data Mining and Surveillance in the Post-9/11 Environment.” In The Surveillance Studies Reader, edited by Sean P. Hier and Joshua Greenberg, 147-57. Berkshire, UK: Open University Press.

Geist, Michael, ed. 2015. Law, Privacy, and Surveillance in Canada in the Post-Snowden Era. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.

Genosko, Gary. 2000. “The Art of Surveillance.” Border Crossings 19. 1 (January): 13-4.

Gillom, John and Torin Monahan. Supervision: An Introduction to Surveillance Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Girouz, Henry A. “Totalitarian Paranoia in the Post-Orwellian Surveillance State.” Journal of Cultural Studies 29, 2: 108-40.

Greene, Rachel. 2004. “Art for Networks.” In Internet Art, 172-213. London and New York: Thames & Hudson.

Gschrey, Raul. “Contemporary Closed Circuits—Subversive Dialogues, Artistic Strategies Against Surveillance.” Surveillance & Society 7, 2: 144-64.

Guest, Dennis. 1997. The Emergence of Social Security in Canada. 3rd edition. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Haggerty, Kevin D. and Amber Gazso. 2005. “Seeing Beyond the Ruins: Surveillance as a Response to Terrorist Threats.” The Canadian Journal of Sociology 30. 2 (July): 169-87.

Haggerty, Kevin D. 2006. “Visible War: Surveillance, Speed, and Information War.” In The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility, edited by Kevin D. Haggerty and Richard V. Ericson, 250-76. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Haggerty, Kevin D. and Richard V. Ericson. 2006. The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Haggerty, Kevin D. and Minas Samatas, eds. 2010. Democracy and Surveillance. New York and London: Routledge.

Haggerty, Kevin D. and Richard V. Ericson. 2006. The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Hamilton, Dwight. 2011. Inside Canadian Intelligence. Toronto: Dundurn Press.

Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negri. 2000. Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negri. 2005. Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire. New York: Penguin.

Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negri. 2009. Commonwealth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Harvey, David. 2000. Spaces of Hope. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Harvey, David. 2003. The New Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Harvey, David. 2006. Spaces of Global Capitalism. London and New York: Verso.

Harvey, David. 2010. The Enigma of Capital and the Crisis of Capitalism. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hier, Sean P. 2004. “Risky Spaces and Dangerous Faces: Urban Surveillance, Social Disorder and CCTV.” Social Legal Studies 13. 4: 541-54.

Hier, Sean P. 2010. Panoptic Dreams: Streetscape Visual Surveillance in Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Heir, Sean P. and Josh Greenberg, eds. 2009. Surveillance: Power, Problems, and Politics. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Hier, Sean P. and Kevin Walby. 2011. “Privacy pragmatism and streetscape video surveillance in Canada.” International Sociology 26. 6: 844-61.

Hobsbawm, Eric. 2007. Globalisation, Democracy and Terrorism. London: Little, Brown.

Jay, Martin. 2002a. “That Visual Turn: The Advent of Visual Culture.” Journal of Visual Culture 1. 1: 87-92.

Jay, Martin. 2002b. “Cultural Relativism and the Visual Turn.” Journal of Visual Culture 1. 3: 267-78.

Jay, Martin. 2005. “Introduction to Show and Tell.” Journal of Visual Culture 4. 2 (August):139-43.

Johnson, Richard. 1986. “What is Cultural Studies Anyway?” Social Text 16 (Winter): 38-80.

Jones, Lawrence. 2005. “Homeland Security, Surveillance, and the War in Iraq.” Radical History Review 93 (Fall): 231-9.

Kilibarda, Kole. 2008. Canadian and Israeli Defense–Industrial and Homeland Security Ties: An Analysis. Surveillance Studies Centre, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON.

Kinsman, Gary, Dieter K. Buse and Mercedes Steedman, eds. 2010. Whose National Security? Canadian State Surveillance and the Creation of Enemies. Toronto: Between the Lines.

Koskela, Hille. 2003. “Cam Era–The contemporary urban Panopticon.” Surveillance & Society 1. 3: 292-313.

Koskela, Hille. 2006. “‘The Other Side of Surveillance’: Webcams, Power and Agency.” In Theorizing Surveillance: The Panopticon and Beyond, edited by David Lyon, 163-81. Devon and New York: Willan Publishing.

Kuus, Merje. 2009. “Cosmopolitan Militarism? Spaces of NATO Expansion.” Environment and Planning A 41. 3 (March): 545-62.

Lalvani, Suren. 1996. Photography, Vision, and the Production of Modern Bodies. Albany: State University of New York.

Lash, Scott and Celia Lury. 2007. Global Culture Industry: The Mediation of Things. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Lawson, Philippa. 2012. Moving Toward a Surveillance Society: Proposals to Expand “Lawful Access” in Canada. BC Civil Liberties Association, Vancouver, BC.

LeBlanc, Paola Barreto. 2014. “From Closed-Circuit Television to the Open Network of Live Cinema.: Surveillance & Society 7, 2: 102-14.

Leman-Langlois, Stéphane. 2011. Sphères de surveillance. Montréal: Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal.

Leman-Langlois, Stephane. 2012. Technocrime: Policing and Surveillance. New York and London: Routledge.

Levin, Thomas Y., Ursula Frohne, and Peter Weibel, eds. 2002. CTRL [SPACE]: Rhetorics of Surveillance from Bentham to Big Brother. Karlsruhe and Cambridge, MA: ZKM Center for Art and Media and the MIT Press.

Lippert, Randy K. and Kevin Walby. 2013. Policing Cities: Urban Securitization and Regulation in a 21st Century World. New York and London: Routledge Publishing.

Lister, Martin (ed.). 2013. The Photographic Image in Digital Culture. New York: Routledge.

Lyon, David. 1994. The Electronic Eye: The Rise of Surveillance Society. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.

Lyon, David. 2003. Surveillance after September 11. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Lyon, David. 2003. “Surveillance as Social Sorting: Computer Codes and Mobile Bodies.” In Surveillance as Social Sorting: Privacy, Risk, and Digital Discrimination, edited by David Lyon, 13-30. London; New York: Routledge.

Lyon, David. 2004. “Globalizing Surveillance.” International Sociology 19. 2 (June): 135-49.

Lyon, David. 2007. Surveillance Studies. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Lyon, David. 2015. Surveillance After Snowden. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Magnet, Shoshana and Kelly Gates, eds. 2009. The New Media of Surveillance. New York and London: Routledge

Mann, Steve. 2002. “Sousveillance: Secrecy, not Privacy, may be the True Cause of Terrorism.” Accessed August 27, 2010.

Mann, Steve. 2004. “Sousveillance”: Inverse Surveillance in Multimedia Imaging.” Proceedings of the 12th annual ACM international conference on Multimedia. New York.

Marx. Gary T. 1988. Undercover: Police Surveillance in America. Berkeley: University of California.

Marwick, Alice. 2012. “The Public Domain: Social Surveillance in Everyday Life.” Surveillance & Society 9, 4: 378-93.

McDonough, David S., ed. 2012. Canada’s National Security in the Post-9/11 World. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

McGrath, John. 2004. Loving Big Brother: Performance, Privacy and Surveillance Space. New York and London: Routledge.

McKay, Ian. 2000. “The Liberal Order Framework.” Canadian Historical Review 81. 4 (Dec): 617-45.

Miller, Toby and George Yúdice. 2002. “Transnational Cultural Policy.” In Culture Policy, edited by Toby Miller and George Yúdice, 165-84. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Mirzoeff, Nicholas. 1998. “The Subject of Visual Culture.” In The Visual Culture Reader, edited by Nicholas Mirzoeff, 3-23. London and New York: Routledge.

Mirzoeff, Nicholas. 1999. An Introduction to Visual Culture. London: Routledge. Mirzoeff, Nicholas. 2006. “On Visuality.” Journal of Visual Culture 5. 1 (2006): 53-76.

Mitchell, W.J.T. 1994. Picture Theory: Essays on Verbal and Visual Representations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mitchell, W.J.T. 1995. “Interdisciplinarity and Visual Culture.” Art Bulletin 77. 4 (Dec): 540-4.

Mitchell, W.J.T. 2002. “Showing Seeing: A Critique of Visual Culture.” Journal of Visual Culture 1. 2: 165–81.

Mitchell, W.J.T. 2005. What Do Pictures Want? Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Monahan, Torin, ed. 2006. Surveillance and Security: Technological Politics and Power in Everyday Life. New York and London: Routledge.

Monahan, Torin. 2006. “Counter-Surveillance as Political Intervention?” Social Semiotics 16. 4 (Dec): 515-34.

Monahan, Torin. 2010. Surveillance in the Time of Insecurity. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Monmonier, Mark. 2002. Spying With Maps: Surveillance Technologies and the Future of Privacy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Murphy, Christopher. 2005. “Securitizing Community Policing: Towards a Canadian Public Policing Model.” The Canadian Review of Policing Research. Vol. 1.

Nayar, Pramod K. 2015. Citizenship and Identity in the Age of Surveillance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Negri, Antonio. 2011. Art & Multitude. Trans. Ed Emery. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Nelson, Robert S. 1997. “The Map of Art History.” Art Bulletin 79 (March): 27-40.

Nelson, Robert S. and Richard Shift. 2003. Critical Terms for Art History. 2nd ed. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Niedzviecki, Hal. 2009. “The Peep Diaries.” The Next Chapter, CBC Radio One (107.5 FM). Accessed March 14, 2012.

Otter, Chris. 2007. “Making Liberal Objects.” Cultural Studies 21. 4/5 (July-Sept): 570-90.

Parenti, Christian. 2003. The Soft Cage: Surveillance in America from Slavery to the War on Terror. New York: Basic Books.

Parks, Lisa. 2000. “Orbital Viewing: Satellite Technologies and Cultural Practice.” Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 6. 4 (Dec): 10-5.

Parks, Lisa. 2005. Cultures in Orbit: Satellites and the Televisual. Durham: Duke University Press.

Parks, Lisa. 2009. “Navigating New Studies of Media and Technology.” Cinema Journal 49. 1 (Dec): 191-4.

Payton, Laura, 2012. “Canada pulls out of NATO surveillance project.” CBC News, Feb 9. Accessed July 14, 2012.

Phillip, Kavita, Elzia Jane Reilly, and David Serlin, eds. 2005. Radical History Review: Homeland Securities 93 (Fall).

Phillips, Sandra S., Simon Baker, Richard B. Woodward, and Philip Brookmans, eds. 2010. Exposed: Voyeurism, Surveillance, and the Camera Since 1870. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Pollock, Griselda. 1994. “Feminism/Foucault—Surveillance/Sexuality.” In Visual Culture: Images and Interpretations, edited by Norman Bryson, Michael Ann Holly, and Keith Moxey, 1-41. Hanover and London: Wesleyan University Press.

Press, Jordan. 2012. “Canadian government under international pressure to pass controversial Internet surveillance bill.” National Post, Nov 27. Accessed Dec 17, 2012.

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